Department of Global and Interdisciplinary Studies

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LIN400ZA(言語学 / Linguistics 400)
Seminar: Diversity of English I


Class code etc
Faculty/Graduate school Department of Global and Interdisciplinary Studies
Attached documents
Year 2022
Class code A6405,A6406
Previous Class code
Previous Class title
Term 春学期授業/Spring
Day/Period 金3/Fri.3,金4/Fri.4
Class Type
Campus 市ヶ谷 / Ichigaya
Classroom name 各学部・研究科等の時間割等で確認
Grade 3~4
Credit(s) 4
Open Program
Open Program (Notes)
Global Open Program
Interdepartmental class taking system for Academic Achievers
Interdepartmental class taking system for Academic Achievers (Notes) ①制度ウェブサイトの3.科目別の注意事項 (1) GIS主催科目の履修上の注意を参照すること。②授業開始前に事前面談が必要。③A6405,A6406はセットで受講すること。
Class taught by instructors with practical experience
Urban Design CP
Diversity CP
Learning for the Future CP
Carbon Neutral CP
Chiyoda Campus Consortium
Duplicate Subjects Taken Under Previous Class Title
Category (commenced 2024 onwards)
Category (commenced 2020-2023)
Category (commenced 2016-2019)

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Outline and objectives

With estimated 2.3 billion users, the global dominance of the English language is in no dispute. However, the language has developed a wide range of variations, depending on the social and cultural contexts where it was transplanted and the other languages it exists alongside. This seminar is concerned with the phonetic features of English(es) both in the Inner and Expanding Circles, while also shedding light on the speakers’ language attitudes and ideologies. We start the spring semester by reviewing Kachru’s (1985) three-circle model and Schneider’s (2007) Dynamic Model of Postcolonial English. Then we focus on New Zealand English (NZE), one of the youngest Inner Circle varieties, examining how it is distinguishable from UK, US and Australian English. The latter part of the semester is devoted to the features of L2-accented English and native-speakerism in the Expanding Circle.


By the end of the course, students will:
(1) understand the evolution and diversity of the English language,
(2) recognise the phonetic features of NZE and L2-accented English, and
(3) get used to analysing sound recordings for research purposes.

Which item of the diploma policy will be obtained by taking this class?

Will be able to gain “DP 1”, “DP 2”, “DP 3”, and “DP 4”.

Default language used in class

英語 / English

Method(s)(学期の途中で変更になる場合には、別途提示します。 /If the Method(s) is changed, we will announce the details of any changes. )

This seminar is presentation and discussion oriented: Students take turns to review a book chapter or journal article assigned by the instructor, noting key terms and concepts, which could be proactively studied by consulting reference materials. The other students in the class contribute to the discussion with their questions and observations. Detailed comments and suggestions for further study are provided at the end of each presentation.

Active learning in class (Group discussion, Debate.etc.)

あり / Yes

Fieldwork in class

なし / No


授業形態/methods of teaching:対面/face to face


1[オンライン/online]:Course Overview

(1) Outlining the course contents and instructional methodologies
(2) APA style: In-text citations and references
(3) Hosei and GIS libraries, and online resources

2[対面/face to face]:Essential Phonetics

(1) IPA
(2) Phonemes and allophones

3[対面/face to face]:Models of World Englishes (Part 1)

(1) The world’s major languages
(2) Indo-European language family
(3) L1 and L2 English
(4) Kachru’s (1985) three-circle model of English

4[対面/face to face]:Models of World Englishes (Part 2)

(1) Limitations of Kachru’s (1985) model
(2) McArthur’s (1987) model
(3) Modiano’s (1999) model
(4) Svartvik & Leech’s (2006) model

5[対面/face to face]:Dynamic Model of Postcolonial English

(1) Outline of the model
(2) Brief review of the model (Buschfeld & Kautzsch, 2017)

6[対面/face to face]:Sound Change of NZE in Progress (Part 1)

(1) Rhoticity
(2) /l/ vocalisation
(3) TR-affrication
(4) Flapping /t/

7[対面/face to face]:Sound Change of NZE in Progress (Part 2)

(1) TH-fronting
(2) Short front vowels
(3) The NEAR/SQUARE merger

8[対面/face to face]:NZ Accents in Films

Phonetic features observed in NZ films

9[対面/face to face]:English in the Expanding Circle

(1) Scandinavian-accented English and English in Scandinavia
(2) Spanish-accented English and English in Spain/Latin America
(3) Japanese-accented English

10[対面/face to face]:Attitudes towards L1 and L2 English

(1) Japanese students’ attitudes (Sasayama, 2013)
(2) Thai students’ attitudes (McKenzie et al., 2016)
(3) Norwegian students’ attitudes (Rindal & Piercy, 2013)

11[対面/face to face]:Indexicality of L2 Accents

(1) Indexicality of Japanese-accented English in NZ
(2) Identification of the provenance of speakers (McKenzie, 2015)

12[対面/face to face]:English in International Contexts

(1) English in international organisations
(2) English in pop culture

13[対面/face to face]:Native-speakerism and ELF

(1) Native-speakerism (Holliday, 2006)
(2) Disadvantages of native-speakerism in ELT (Kirkpatrick, 2007)
(3) EFL vs. ELF (Seidlhofer, 2011)

14[対面/face to face]:Conclusion

(1) Review and final discussion
(2) Preparation for seminar papers

Work to be done outside of class (preparation, etc.)

Students are required to read in advance the references posted on the course website and the handouts emailed by presenters. They also need to listen to and analyse sound recordings. Preparatory study and review time for this course are 4 hours each.


Hay, J., Maclagan, M., & Gordon, E. (2008). New Zealand English. Edinburgh University Press.
Swan, M., & Smith, B. (Eds.). (2001). Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.


Detailed references are listed on the website, while the following books will be helpful as a general introduction.

Melchers, G., Shaw, P., & Sundkvist, P. (2019). World Englishes (3rd ed.). Routledge.
Trudgill, P., & Hannah, J. (2017). International English: A guide to varieties of English around the World (6th ed.). Routledge.

Grading criteria

Evaluation will be based on presentation (70%) and class discussion (30%). More than two unexcused absences per semester will result in failure of the course.

Changes following student comments

The schedule and contents may be modified based on students' interests and needs.

Equipment student needs to prepare

The presentations are delivered using PowerPoint slides and Internet resources. The handouts are downloadable in PDF format.


Successful applicants must be knowledgeable and enthusiastic about the seminar theme. They are expected to have studied, or be currently studying, 200-level linguistics courses with a good understanding.


No prerequisite is required.