Department of Global and Interdisciplinary Studies

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English as a Lingua Franca


Class code etc
Class code A6248
Year 2020
Faculty/Graduate school Department of Global and Interdisciplinary Studies
Previous Class title
Attached documents
Class form
Term 秋学期授業/Fall
Credit(s) 2
Day/Period 火4/Tue.4
Campus 市ヶ谷 / Ichigaya
Grade 2~4
Duplicate Subjects Taken Under Previous Class Title
Open Program
Global Open Program
Interdepartmental class taking system for Academic Achievers
Class taught by instructors with practical experience

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Outline and objectives

The ratio of native to non-native users of English in the world is roughly estimated to be 1:3. However, it was only towards the turn of the century that sociolinguists/applied linguists took a keen interest in the expanding use of English as a lingua franca (ELF), which is due to the globalisation in all aspects of society, including mass media and pop culture. Arguably, some Expanding Circle countries, where English does not have an official language status, have recently overshadowed the Outer Circle ones in proficiency and frequency of use.
 The former part of the course observes how extensively English is used in international contexts, mainly among non-native speakers, while analysing phonetically examples of L2-accented speech. It also refers to the limitations in the traditional models of the World English(es) put forward by B. Kachru and other scholars. The latter half discusses native-speakerness, bilingualism and native-speakerism, all of which exert a significant influence on pedagogical practices, and suggests how these notions could/should be modified from the perspective of ELF. The course is concluded with an analysis of status and function of English in present-day Japan.


By the end of the course, students will:
(1) understand key terminology and concepts in ELF and World English(es),
(2) have an awareness of the wider use of English in non-native speaking contexts, and
(3) become familiar with interpreting quantitative/qualitative data for linguistic research.

Which item of the diploma policy will be obtained by taking this class?

Will be able to gain “DP 1”, “DP 2”, “DP 3”, and “DP 4”.

Default language used in class

英語 / English

Method(s)(2020年度はオンライン授業の実施に伴い、変更の可能性があります。変更は学習支援システム等で提示します。/Method(s) may change depending on the online lesson.Changes will be reflected in the Learning Management System, etc.)

This course is a combination of lectures and discussions about pre-assigned topics. The lectures are delivered using PowerPoint slides and Internet sources. Students have to address review and application questions given in advance. Attendance at the first class is mandatory.

Active learning in class (Group discussion, Debate.etc.)

あり / Yes

Fieldwork in class

なし / No



1:Course Overview
World Englishes

(1) Outlining the course content and instructional methodologies
(2) World Englishes
(3) Development of postcolonial Englishes
(4) The diasporas of English

2:Limitations of the Three-circle Model

(1) Kachru’s (1985) model
(2) Other models of World English(es)

3:Introduction to ELF

(1) What is a lingua franca?
(2) ELF

4:English in International Contexts (Part 1)

(1) English in Europe
(2) English in international organisations
(3) English media for non-L1 English speaking viewers

5:English in International Contexts (Part 2)

(1) English in aviation
(2) English in pop culture

6:Phonetic Features of L2 English (Part 1)

(1) German-accented English
(2) Spanish-accented English
(3) Chinese-accented English

7:Phonetic Features of L2 English (Part 2)
Mid-semester Examination

(1) Japanese-accented English
(2) Mid-semester exam

8:Core Features of ELF

(1) The Lingua Franca Core
(2) Common grammatical features of ELF interaction
(3) Interlanguage

9:Native-speakerness and Critical Period Hypothesis (Part 1)

(1) The characteristics of the native speaker
(2) NS/NNS dichotomy
(3) The critical period hypothesis
(4) The sensitive period hypothesis

10:Native-speakerness and Critical Period Hypothesis (Part 2)

(1) L1 English speakers’ perception of L2 English
(2) Passing for native speakers
(3) L1 English speakers perceived as non-native


(1) What is bilingualism?
(2) Types of bilinguals
(3) Attitudes towards bilinguals

12:Native Speakerism and Pedagogical Issues

(1) Dominance of native speakers in ELT
(2) Disadvantages of native speakerism
(3) ELF models
(4) ELF users’ accommodation to the ENL norm

13:ELF in Japan (Part 1)

(1) History of ELF/EIL in Japan
(2) The Suggested Course of Study in English
(3) The model of English to be taught

14:ELF in Japan (Part 2)
Summary and Final Examination

(1) English in public transport
(2) Language choice on university websites
(3) Review
(4) Final exam

Work to be done outside of class (preparation, etc.)

Students are required to read the handouts beforehand so that they can actively participate in discussions. They may also need to consult chapter references or search for relevant online materials to answer pre-assigned questions satisfactorily. Preparatory study and review time for this course are two hours each.


No textbooks are used. All handouts are posted on the course website, while additional materials will be provided in the classroom.


Detailed references and suggestions for further reading are listed on each chapter handout. The following books will be helpful as a general introduction.

Galloway, N., & Rose, H. (2015). Introducing global Englishes. Abingdon: Routledge.
Jenkins, J. (2015). Global Englishes: A resource book for students (3rd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.

Grading criteria

Evaluation will be based on in-class quizzes (15%), a mid-semester exam (40%) and a final exam (45%). More than two unexcused absences will result in failure of the course.

Changes following student comments

The pre-assigned questions have been updated to invite lively discussion.

Equipment student needs to prepare

The handouts are downloadable in PDF format.


It is recommended that students have completed 100-level linguistics courses with good grades. This course is cross-listed with the Global Open Program. Non-GIS students may join if they demonstrate solid background in linguistics and meet the minimum English proficiency requirement: TOEFL iBT®80 or IELTS 6.0.


No prerequisite is required.